Leserbrief an Paul Ritters Zeitschrift ORGONOMIC FUNCTIONALISM (1959)

von Paul Mathews*

Sehr geehrter Herr Ritter,

Ich möchte diese Gelegenheit nutzen, um einige Kritikpunkte vorzubringen. In früheren Nummern [von Orgonomic Functionalism] haben Sie dazu eingeladen.

Erlauben Sie mir zunächst Ihre Hartnäckigkeit und Ihre Bemühungen zu würdigen, über die Jahre eine Zeitschrift herauszugeben, die zumindest zur Verbreitung von Informationen über Wilhelm Reich und die orgonomische Bewegung beigetragen, aber auch anregende und kreative Ideen eingebracht hat, die einer orgonomischen Ausrichtung entstammen. Dies ist heute um so wichtiger, wo die gesamte orgonomische Forschungs- und Veröffentlichungsarbeit eingestellt wurde – hoffentlich nur vorübergehend.

Auf der negativen Seite betrifft meine Kritik Bereiche, in denen ich glaube, daß Sie zu eifrig waren und zu weit gegangen sind. Ich glaube nicht, daß Sie oder irgendeiner Ihrer „Auszubildenden“ Orgontherapie praktizieren oder Berichte über Ihre Behandlungen im Orgonomic Functionalism veröffentlichen sollten. Die Gründe sind einfach: Im Gegensatz zur Praxis der heutigen Psychoanalyse, die sich für eine „laien-analytische Therapie“ anbietet, ist die Orgontherapie eine streng medizinische Disziplin. Reich selbst legte Richtlinien für die Anforderungen an einen Orgontherapeuten fest. Alle Therapeuten müssen Ärzte sein (d.h. M.D. [Dr. med.] oder das Äquivalent – vgl. „The Founding of the American Association for Medical Orgonomy“, S. 77f – OEB, Vol. 1, No. 2, April 1949), mit einer Ausbildung in klassischer Psychiatrie und einer Phase der orgonomischen Umstrukturierung bei einem qualifizierten ärztlichen Trainingstherapeuten. Die verschiedenen Prozesse in der Orgontherapie sind zwar funktioneller Natur und variieren mit dem Individuum, sie sind jedoch auf einen systematischen Ansatz ausgerichtet, bei dem der Therapeut weiß, was vor sich geht, warum es geschieht und wohin es geht. Tiefe und Kraft der Orgontherapie ist so groß, daß die Gefahr möglicher physiologischer Reaktionen und ihrer funktionell identischen psychischen Komponenten hoch ist, außer in den Händen derer, die die strengsten Anforderungen erfüllt und eine entsprechende medizinische Ausbildung erfahren haben. In dieser Hinsicht wurden von Zeit zu Zeit Warnungen in den verschiedenen orgonomischen Zeitschriften herausgegeben.

Abgesehen von pragmatischen medizinischen Überlegungen gibt es das soziale (und rechtliche) Problem, die bereits bestehenden Lügen und Verdrehungen hinsichtlich der „pseudowissenschaftlichen“ Natur der Orgonomie und der Etikettierung ihrer legitimen Praktizierenden als „Quacksalber“ weitere Nahrung zu geben. Die Emotionelle Pest sucht immer nach Wegen, die orgonomische Arbeit weiter zu diffamieren, zu stören und zu zerstören bzw. das, was davon übriggeblieben ist. Sie erinnern sich vielleicht an einen Brief, den Dr. Baker einmal an das American College of Physicians (OEB, Vol. 2, No. 1, Januar 1950, S. 45) senden mußte, aus dem ich teilweise zitiere:

Ich wünschte, Sie würden dem College erklären, daß ich keinem Kult angehöre. Die American Association for Medical Orgonomy setzt sich aus Mitgliedern zusammen, die Ärzte einer medizinischen Fakultät der Klasse A mit einem Jahr Berufspraktikum sind, mindestens einem Jahr Psychiatrie, einer kompletten Umstrukturierung durch eine persönliche Orgontherapie und drei Jahren Orgon-Biophysik-Ausbildung in Klinik, Seminar und Labor.

Man kann die Versuchung verstehen, therapeutisches Wissen in einem Land anzuwenden, in dem es keinen Zugang zu qualifizierten Orgontherapeuten gibt. Es ist jedoch sehr zweifelhaft, daß dies den beteiligten Patienten und dem Fach im Allgemeinen gerecht wird. Wäre es nicht besser diese Munition dem Feind vorzuenthalten und zu warten, bis qualifizierte Hilfe verfügbar wird (was unter letzterer Bedingung wahrscheinlicher ist)? Andernfalls gehen Sie möglicherweise ungerechtfertigte ernste Risiken ein, die andere Menschen betreffen. Es gibt natürlich keinen ernsthaften Einwand gegen eine Form von Counseling , Beratung oder Oberflächenanalyse einer verbalen Natur, die orgonomisch orientiert ist.

Nur noch eine Sache. Ihre Bezugnahme auf Alexander Lowens Buch PHYSICAL DYNAMICS OF CHARACTER STRUCTURE [1958, deutsche Übersetzung: Körperausdruck und Persönlichkeit, München 1981] als für die Orgonomie wichtig, ist meines Erachtens ungerechtfertigt. Dr. Lowen identifiziert sich nicht mit der Orgonomie und hat sich Techniken angeeignet, mit denen Reich und andere Orgonomen nicht übereinstimmen. Lowen verwendet nicht den Begriff „Orgon“, obwohl es offensichtlich ist, was er mit dem Ausdruck „Bioenergie“ meint. Meine eigene Lektüre des Buches zeigt keinen signifikanten Beitrag zum orgonomischen Wissen und weist in einigen Fällen auf eine Regression zu einigen der früheren vegetotherapeutischen Techniken hin. Am bedeutsamsten scheint mir jedoch der Versuch Lowens zu sein, mit den Psychoanalytikern irgendwie einen Vergleich zu finden und (wo Reich es nicht vermochte und zwar mit viel größerer Erfahrung, Wissen und Genialität als er) ihnen zu beweisen und sie zu überzeugen, daß die Lücke zwischen Freuds früheren Libido-Konzepten der Psychoanalyse (die die meisten von ihnen heute nicht akzeptieren) und den Energiekonzepten Reichs nicht existent ist. Ich wünsche ihm dabei viel Glück – er wird’s brauchen.

Mit freundlichen Grüßen,

Paul Mathews

* Aus der von Paul und Jean Ritter in Nottingham, England herausgegebenen Zeitschrift Orgonomic Functionalism, Vol. 6 (1959), Nos. 2&3, S. 83f.

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37 Antworten to “Leserbrief an Paul Ritters Zeitschrift ORGONOMIC FUNCTIONALISM (1959)”

  1. Robert (Berlin) Says:

    „Die Emotionelle Pest sucht immer nach Wegen…“
    Heißt es nun Emotionelle oder Emotionale Pest?

    • Peter Nasselstein Says:

      Reich schreibt in der CHARAKTERANALYSE:

      Der Ausdruck »emotionelle Pest« ist keine diffamierende Bezeichnung. Er betrifft nicht bewußte Bösartigkeit, moralische oder biologische Degeneration, Unmoralität oder ähnliches. Ein Organismus, dem die Fähigkeit, sich natürlich fortzubewegen, von der Geburt an dauernd unmöglich gemacht wurde, entwickelt künstliche Formen der Fortbewegung. Er hinkt oder geht auf Krücken. Ebenso bewegt sich ein Mensch mit den Mitteln der emotionellen Pest im Leben fort, wenn ihm von Geburt an die natürlichen Lebensäußerungen der Selbstregelung unterbunden wurden. Der emotionell Pest­kranke hinkt charakterlich. Die emotionelle Pest ist eine chro­nische Biopathie des Organismus. Sie brach mit der ersten massenmäßigen Unterdrückung des genitalen Liebeslebens in die menschliche Gesellschaft ein; sie wurde zu einer Endemie, die die Erdbevölkerung seit Jahrtausenden peinigt.

      Wäre das auf Englisch geschrieben und übersetzt worden, würde da „emotionale Pest“ stehen. Beides ist im Deutschen möglich, doch „emotional“ ist gängiger. Reich wählte „emotionell“, entsprechend „funktionell“ statt „funktional“. Das heißt aber nicht, daß „emotionelle Pest“ falsch ist. Ich schreibe „Emotionelle Pest“, weil es für mich ein stehender Begriff ist wie „Zweiter Weltkrieg“.

  2. Tzindaro Says:

    I visited Ritter in Australia and read his correspondence from Reich. Reich wrote: „I understand your desire to help your friends and that there is no money in Britain to send someone to America for training.“ Reich did NOT say not to do therapy. He only asked Ritter to „go slow“ and „please keep me informed.“

    A medical degree is not a requirement to do any form of mental health treatment in the UK and in that regard Ritter was as well qualified as any other mental health practitioner in the country and in addition, his wife’s degree in biology and his working in partnership with her added to the qualifications of the team.

    Although Reich himself did not object to Ritter doing therapy, the New York orgonomists did. They obtained via a spy a list of all Ritter’s patients and wrote to all of them that Ritter, their therapist, was „unqualified, incompetent, and unethical.“ This attempt at sabotage failed; none of his patients dropped out of therapy.

    Davis Boadella was Ritters‘ first patient. He went on to become Europes‘ leading Reichian therapist and publisher of an orgonomic journal, Energy And Character, which is still publishing, in both English and German, since 1967. Upon meeting him, my impression was very favorable; in fact, I consider him much healthier than most of the patients of the medical orgonomists I have met. So Ritter must have been doing something right.

    • Robert (Berlin) Says:

      Energy and Character is certainly not an orgonomic journal, but a mishmash of neo-reichianism. If you think Paul Mathews is a fascist, how do you know what’s healthy?

  3. Tzindaro Says:

    For more information on this development from orgonomy, see: http://biosynthesis.org/html/welcome.html

  4. Robert (Berlin) Says:

    “ Versuch Lowens zu sein, mit den Psychoanalytikern irgendwie einen Vergleich zu“

    Das fiel mir auch immer sehr bei Löwen auf, dass er sich viel mit Freud befasste und sehr wenig mit Reichs Schriften. Er war immer ein Opportunist des Zeitgeistes.

    • Peter Nasselstein Says:

      Aus unterschiedlichen Quellen habe ich erfahren, daß heutige Psychoanalytiker und damalige Psychiater (die durchweg eine psychoanalytische Ausbildung hatten – im Gegensatz zu heute) vollkommen entsetzt über Lowen waren, weil der als Nicht-Psychologe und Nicht-Arzt (er war Gymnastiklehrer, Anwalt und Allgemeinmediziner) wirklich vollkommenen Mumpitz gebaut hat, wenn er in seinen Schrift „psychoanalysierte“. Gerade lese ich eine Rezension von Lowens erstem Buch durch Ritter: ein mechanistischer Alptraum. Oberkörper = Aufladung, Unterkörper = Entladung, etc. Vollkommener Schrott, was erstaunlicherweise Ritter erkennt.

      Und wenn ich dann an den neuen „offiziellen“ Reich-Film denke, wo für die „Alexander Lowen Foundation“ und die Bioenergetikerin Ladas Werbung gemacht wird… Ansonsten: – Marxisten!

  5. Peter Nasselstein Says:

    Bitte ZEUGNISSE EINER FREUNDSCHAFT in die Hand nehmen und im Register nach „Ritter“ suchen. Man wird sehen, daß Reich die ganze Situation so sah wie später Mathews. Kunststück, denn der war enger Mitarbeiter Bakers und hat alles mitgekriegt. Außerdem, wenn man Mathews‘ Brief noch mal liest: er verdammt Ritter ja nun auch nicht in Bausch und Bogen!

  6. Peter Nasselstein Says:

    Da ständig Nebelkerzen geworfen werden, noch daß: Es ist nicht ohne Grund, daß „ausgerechnet“ Mathews diesen Brief schrieb, denn er war selbst orgonomischer Laientherapeut (wenn auch nur informell) und nahm an allen von Bakers Ausbildungsseminaren teil. Der Unterschied zu Ritter und etwa „Skan-Therapeuten“ war, daß er tatsächlich die Orgonomie verstanden hatte und, zweitens, als Nichtarzt niemals auf den Gedanken gekommen wäre anders als verbal zu intervenieren. Heute bildet das ACO offiziell Nichtärzte aus, aber die sind explizit nicht als „Körpertherapeuten“ unterwegs. Umgekehrt sind es gerade die diversen „Reichianer“ seit Ritter und seinen „Schülern“, die weitaus mehr „körpertherapeutisch“ vorgehen, als es ein ACO-Arzt je tun würde. Eine vollkommen absurde Situation. „Körpertherapeuten“ sind typischerweise Psychologen, Politologen, Soziologen und andere „Geisteswissenschaftler“.

  7. Robert (Berlin) Says:

    From 1954 to 1964 Paul and Jean Ritter ran the Ritter Press in Nottingham, where Paul taught at the School of Architecture from 1952 to 1964, when the School moved to the University, and a new professor was appointed. Ritter Press mainly published the journal Orgonomic Functionalism, devoted to the work of Wilhelm Reich, which appeared in 38 issues in 10 volumes. Paul Ritter was the editor and main contributor. Reich did not accept him as his follower, and wrote in a letter to A. S. Neill: „He claims now to establish the TRUE Functionalism. I am a kind of precursor. He is ending in utter confusion.“[5] After Reich’s death in 1957 Ritter edited a Reich Memorial Volume with contributions by the Ritters, Neill, Nic Waal, and the later Reich biographer Myron Sharaf.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Ritter

    • Robert (Berlin) Says:

      Paul Ritter

      Quelle:
      http://purl.slwa.wa.gov.au/slwa_b3113240_2

    • Peter Nasselstein Says:

      Wenn ich das richtig sehe, ist sein Wahlplakat teilweise in Esperanto. Also, so einer!

    • Tzindaro Says:

      The Ritters also wrote The Free Family, a book on their experiences bringing up their 7 children according to Summerhill ideas. It is the best practical guide to child rearing yet written and was strongly endorsed by Neil. It takes Summerhill out of the status of an expensive luxury for a few rich people and into the streets, showing how any parents can apply Summerhill thinking to raising their children even if they have to send them to a public school.

      The second edition included an update of essays by each of the children commenting on their upbringing in contrast to the upbringing of their friends. The “experiment“ was a great success. Two of the Ritters‘ daughters are now pediatricians in Australia.

      I saw one incident that demonstrates the theory in action. Paul, then on the Perth City Council, kept the mayor, who came to see him on official business, waiting for a half hour while he played football with his 7 year old son in keeping with a promise. Many fathers involved in politics would not have thought keeping a promise to a child more important than adult business, but Ritter told the mayor that his job as a father, including teaching a child to keep promises, was the most important job he had and city business would just have to wait.

  8. O. Says:

    Dies ist der Kernpunkt der Kritik:
    „Ich glaube nicht, daß Sie oder irgendeiner Ihrer „Auszubildenden“ Orgontherapie praktizieren oder Berichte über Ihre Behandlungen im Orgonomic Functionalism veröffentlichen sollten.“

    Und dies gilt es respektvoll und klar darzulegen. Doch mit jedem Vorstoß, Praktizierende darauf zu verweisen, dass sie inhaltliche keine „Orgontherapie“ betreiben, noch ein ausreichendes Verständnis hiervon entwickelt haben, vermehren sich Selbsternannte/ Gurus und verwandeln „orgontherapie“ in emotionelle Pest um.

    Die ACO – sich berufend auf Reich – hält die Grundausbildung zum Arzt und Psychiater für maßgeblich. Psychologen werden klar ausgeschlossen. Jetzt ist zu fragen, als was bitte die Orgontherapie zu verstehen sei? Stellt man sie als „psychiatrische Orgontherapie“ vor, dann würde ich dem zustimmen, dass dies nicht das Fach eines Psychologen ist.
    Dann ist die „Orgontherapie“ rein psychiatrisch und KEINE Psychotherapie! –

    Es würde sich von selbst erledigen, um sie zu streiten, sie wäre damit „out of discussion“ und beerdigt. Und ob Orgon eine Relevanz innerhalb der Psychotherapie habe, wäre auch mit „Nein“ beantwortet.

    Kurzum erscheint mir die Argumentation des ACO (Baker etc.) gewaltig zu hinken. Und warum hätte man nicht Geld aus Amerika nehmen können, damit in Europa passende Personen ausgebildet werden?

    • Tzindaro Says:

      „This is the crux of the criticism:
      „I do not think you or any of your ‚trainees‘ should practice orgone therapy or publish reports on your Orgonomic Functionalism treatments.““

      So what? Who cares what Mathews said? Mathews was not Reich. What REICH said was „Go slow and keep me informed“. I read his letters to Ritter. Reich did not tell Ritter not to do therapy, only to „go slow“ and to „keep me informed“. Anything said by Mathews is incompetent, irrelevant, and immaterial.

      The ACO is not „orgonomy“ per se; it is only one of several factions into which orgonomy fractured after Reich died. There is no reason other than partisanship to grant any greater weight to the policies of the ACO than to those of any of the other branches of orgonomy.

      If judged by their RESULTS, the ones with the best track record for producing relatively healthy graduates are the Radix teachers trained by Charles Kelley. I have met quite a few ACO orgonomists and their ex-patients; none of them strike me as particularly healthy compared to the general population.

      • Robert (Berlin) Says:

        Reich commissioned Baker to train orgone therapists. All deviations such as radix do not have the goal of orgastic potency.
        How do you know what health is? Your gut feeling can’t be a criterion.

        • Tzindaro Says:

          So Baker claimed. But actually, he and his followers abandoned that goal as too difficult and now accept subjective evaluations as sufficient criteria of success. In fact, they were critical of Shane Haldane for insisting on orgastic potency as the sole criteria of success in therapy.

          Baker also accepted at least three lay therapists he had trained on the condition they not call themselves orgonomists or the work they did orgone therapy. He was more concerned with public relations than with facts.

          • Peter Nasselstein Says:

            Sean Haldane… Lächerlich!

            Baker war in der Wilhelm Reich Foundation für die Ausbildung verantwortlich. Alles schon tausendmal dargelegt…

            w-reich.de

          • Robert (Berlin) Says:

            You can say a lot. But you have not yet submitted a single verifiable proof.

          • Robert (Berlin) Says:

            James DeMeo on Facebook:
            The now-deceased orgonomist Elsworth Baker, close associate of Wilhelm Reich, once wrote on this, in his book „Man in the Trap“, and was scalded with boiling hate by the Reichian Left. Moderate conservative orgonomists in those days were screamed at during conferences by radical Marxists, who disrupted their events much as we see today as a regular thing on „progressive“ (Communist) university campuses. Meanwhile, some of the most outspoken critics of modern liberal-progressive Communism are former leftists or old-fashioned liberals, who realize how wrong progressivism has been, how disastrous Marxism has been, and how far off to the hard-left their former associates have strayed. Wilhelm Reich was one such, a young Marxist who later abandoned and criticized the Marxist factions, by 1933 – he was thrown out of every Marxist organization he ever joined, and finally got the message. By 1936, his name was on an NKVD death-list.

            • Tzindaro Says:

              There was only one incident of a talk by right-wing Reichians being disrupted by a group of feminists at NYU and the reason they were protesting was the betrayal of Reich’s leftist legacy by the ACO. The protest consisted mainly of throwing eggs at the speakers and the protesters were later sued by the two ACO members involved and the courts ruled in favor of the speakers, one of whom was Mathews and the other was his fellow professor at NYU, John Bell, neither of whom was an orgonomist.

              DeMeo, who began his career in orgonomy as an honorary member of the ACO but later split with them over personal reasons does not mention that there were other orgonomists, including Raphael, Rothenberg, Sobey, Oller, Gold, and Handelman, who refused to join the organization founded by Baker because of it’s politics and remained active in practicing orgone therapy without affiliation with the ACO. Sobey and Raphael both trained students some of whom are still in practice today. Sobey told me a year before he died that he was still a socialist.

              What is the source for the claim that Reich was „thrown out“ of even one Marxist organization, let alone several? It is true his book for young people, Der Sexualle Kampf Der Jugund, was not accepted for publication by the Communist Party Press and he had to publish it himself, but he was still a member of the Party in good standing when the Nazis took over and the German Party ceased to exist. Reich never attempted to join the Communist Party in Denmark, Sweden, or Norway. Yet the story persists that he was expelled from the Communist Party.

              As for the more recent tale that he was on a KGB „death list“, if anyone had seriously wanted to kill him, it would have been rather easy. He was living alone in a remote cabin in the forest a long way from any neighbors who might have heard a gunshot and in a place where if anyone did hear a shot they would think it was just a hunter shooting at some animal. All a KGB agent would have to do is go to Orgonon after dark, knock on the door, and shoot Reich when he came to the door, rummage through the house as though searching for something, then return to New York before the body was discovered the next morning. The local police would have assumed the motive was robbery by some local resident.

              Reich himself started the story the KGB wanted to kill him after he heard of the murder of Trotsky in Mexico. He identified with Trotsky because they were both well known ex-Communists with their own followers and publications, and had both turned against the official Communist organization and it’s Soviet distortions. Reich must have thought he could be next on the KGB hit list, but due to egotism he did not see the differences between his situation and that of Trotsky, who was personally known to Stalin and much closer to the center of Communist Party affairs, and much better known to the world at large. Reich was not considered important enough to kill. If he had been, they could easily have done it.

        • Tzindaro Says:

          After Reich died Ellsworth Baker formed the College Of Orgonomy to carry on the work. But he soon betrayed it by insisting that his personal political views were scientific discoveries, causing most of the liberal-minded potential supporters of orgonomy to shy away from what they rightly saw as a right-wing group co-opting the fundamentally leftist thinking of Reich on behalf of the establishment. By associating orgonomy with the fascistic American dictatorship, Baker made it impossible to attract and hold most of the people who would otherwse have flocked to it.

          Baker also insisted on medical degrees for training in orgonomy. That made no sense since there is nothing relevant to orgonomy taught in medical schools, so many non-M.D.s simply started doing therapy without his permission and the ACO was soon relegated to the status of one of the many factions in a broad and diverse field in spite of it’s pretensions to constitute orgonomy per se.

          • Tzindaro Says:

            Aug 6, 2013 at 12:08 AM
            Jerome Greenfield told me he was once in Baker’s office and began to feel pain in his chest. Baker spent the whole session trying to find out the „meaning“ of the pain. It was only afterwards, while driving home, that Greenfield realized he was having a heart attack and drove to a hospital. Baker failed to diagnose the pain as a heart attack because he was so certain it must have some psychological meaning.

            Baker trained some non-medical people in doing therapy and authorized them to practice without M.D. degrees on condition the not call themselves orgonomists. One of them was Robert Morris, who was DeMeo’s therapist. He was located in Miami, Florida. Another I once met was Jack Thornton, in Arizona. Both of them and at least one other whose name I cannot remember were doing therapy with Baker’s consent but calling it something else.

            While Reich was still alive, Blasband was a medical student. He did a cloudbusting operation just to show off for his girlfriend. It caused a big storm at sea that nearly sank several ships. Reich was furious and told Baker, Blasband’s training therapist, to „get Blasband out of orgonomy“. Baker disregarded this order from Reich because he thought Blasband was so „enthusiastic“ about orgonomy.

            In the 1970’s Baker, along with several other orgonomists, became a member of the Shickshinny Pennsylvania-based Knights Of Malta, a fake order of knighthood headed by a former Nazi, Charles Pitchel, who had once been personal representative in America of Adolph Hitler. The editorial by Baker in the Journal of Orgonomy praising the organization and welcoming them to orgonomy is sickening. For the next several years Baker, his son, Courtney, and Blasband, all signed their articles in the Journal with the initials, OSJ, for Order Of St. John, ( the formal name of the KOM )
            along with M.D. for their medical degrees.

            Baker died of medical malpractice–effects of a surgery he had despite the advice from the AMA that it was a quack form of treatment. Baker, his son, Courtney, and Blasband, both of whom looked into the operation for him, ignored the warnings because they thought the AMA was against the orgone accumulator, so anything the AMA is against must therefore be good.

            I do not know how to document all this, but in my opinion, as a medical doctor, Baker was incompetent. The fact that so many of his trainees are so rigid and authoritarian is evidence that his ability as a therapist is highly questionable also.

      • Robert (Berlin) Says:

        Mathews wrote [JOO 5(2)]:
        „In fact, in the light of the behavior of these groups, as well as the trend toward distortion of Reich and orgone therapy by so called encounter groups, women’s libs, and „primal screams,“ pessimism increases. Of course, a modicum of truth is expressed in all these groups, but they are like an almost totally blind man who upon seeing a vague ray of light stumbles wildly toward it at the edge of a precipice.“

        Whether Primal scream or Radix emotional education.

      • Robert (Berlin) Says:

        „neither of whom was an orgonomist.“
        Both were members of the ACO.

        „but he was still a member of the Party in good standing when the Nazis took over and the German Party ceased to exist.“

        The distribution of his books was forbidden and shortly before the seizure of power (Nazis) there was an expulsion procedure. Communists said to Reich that if they came to power, they would shoot him.

        „As for the more recent tale that he was on a KGB „death list“, if anyone had seriously wanted to kill him, it would have been rather easy.“

        Don’t you confuse the NKWD with the KGB and the 1930s with the’50s?

        • Tzindaro Says:

          ( 1 ) If some individuals said that, they must not have been in a high enough position in the Party leadership to do so or else they must have changed their minds later because the post-war Communist government in East Germany held Reich in high enough regard to have his ideas taught at universities there. When I asked at the University Of Havana if anyone was doing anything connected with Reich, I was immediately introduced to a Cuban psychologist who had been trained in East Germany and had opened a government-sponsored sex counseling clinic for adolescents in Cuba. He was trained in Reich’s character analytic work in Communist East Germany and his clinic in Cuba was using Reich’s teachings with funding from a Communist government.

          ( 2 ) Same organization: different name. If they wanted to kill Reich in Germany it would still have been easy to get away with it because everyone would have thought the Nazis did it.

          • Robert (Berlin) Says:

            (1) Do you know any names?

            (2) That’s not right. Police pursued the police officer murderer Erich Mielke, later head of the secret police in East Germany, 60 years later. You couldn’t kill people that easily because the state police were watching the Communists. At that time, the nations were still conservative or right-wing.

            • Tzindaro Says:

              ( 1 ) I do not recall the names, but if you write to the Cuban Embassy they may be able to tell you more.

              ( 2 ) Hardly the same kind of case. Erich Mielke was very well-known and very many people wanted him punished for something, regardless of what. A killing of a known Communist agitator like Reich by an unknown person would almost certainly have been blamed on the Nazis and not much done to solve it by investigating anyone else, especially other Communists.

              Contrary to fiction, most murders are never solved or are „solved“ by framing some innocent person. Governments go to great lengths to convince the public it is impossible to get away with murder, but in reality it is one of the easiest crimes to get away with according to statistics. It is almost impossible to solve a well-planed killing by a single person who does not have a subconscious wish to get caught. If self-defeating idiots did not boast about a killing to their friends or post pictures of it on Facebook, there would be few murders solved. Killings by organized groups like the IRA or nation-state intelligence services are almost never solved.

              If the Soviet government had wanted Reich dead, he would have been dead quite soon. The claim they wanted to kill him is part of the modern myth by right-wing Reichians that seeks to inflate his importance as an anti-communist thinker and counter the historical fact that he was once a Communist.

            • Robert (Berlin) Says:

              „The claim they wanted to kill him is part of the modern myth by right-wing Reichians“

              But Brady, a red fascist, set the ball rolling. As a leftist, you just don’t want to believe it.

              • Tzindaro Says:

                Brady like most intellectuals in the Depression had been a Communist. I have no idea if she still was at the time she wrote her article on Reich in the late 40s. But even if she was, that does not prove any intent to kill him. Orgonomy sounds so crackpot to most educated people, so silly, unscientific, and so impossible, that almost anyone would have agreed with her without any political motivation needed.

                And people do not have only one single identity: Brady, Communist or not, was a consumer rights activist, and her magazine, Consumer Reports, was a really good magazine, informing the public about products and a warning about a crackpot cancer cure box was not too unlike the rest of the articles they published. Drawing a link between her Communist political affiliation, if it still existed, and her character assassination of Reich is rather far fetched. There is no reason to make such a connection even if she was still a communist at the time. It was standard reporting about an obviously crackpot cancer cure, though in this single case, the device in question happened to be valid, unlikely as it would seem to anyone with some scientific education.

                And I am not a „leftist“ in the sense you mean: I tend more to the Anarchist movement and am always willing to think the worst about the statist authoritarian Communists if the evidence supports it.

  9. Peter Nasselstein Says:

    Dem vielleicht ersten der modernen „Reichianischen Therapeuten“, Paul Ritter, schrieb Reich am 9. Oktober 1950 persönlich, daß er auf keinen Fall Leute in „Therapie“ nehmen solle, egal wie sehr es ihn auch dränge ihnen zu helfen. Reich fuhr fort:

    Sie (die Orgontherapie) ist nicht mehr und nicht weniger als bio-psychiatrische Chirurgie und kann nur von versierten und gut ausgebildeten Menschen mit der entsprechenden (Charakter-) Struktur auf eine sichere Weise durchgeführt werden. Sie ist deshalb auf Ärzte beschränkt. (Journal of Orgonomy, May 1977, S. 62)

    Sollte er ihm später den Rat gegeben haben, nicht zu schnell in der „Therapie“ vorzugehen, dann allenfalls um weiteren Schaden zu verhindern, der auf Reich zurückgefallen wäre.

  10. Tzindaro Says:

    A large part of the problems with orgone therapy can be laid at the door of Ellsworth Baker. He was incompetent. He allowed Blasband to continue training and become an orgonomist after Reich had instructed him not to. Reich considered Blasband characterlogically unfit to become an orgonomist, but Baker ignored Reich’s opinion and let him continue training. Blasband later became a devotee of a psychic healer, tried to import mysticism into orgonomy, and ignored Constable’s killing numerous people by intentionally creating wild storms as a demonstration to impress Blasband.

    Baker also lied about qualifications for training therapists, allowing several non-M.D.s to practice with his blessing despite his often-proclaimed insistence on a medical degree for training.

    Baker was so incompetent as a medical doctor that when Jerome Greenfield had a heart attack in his office he failed to diagnose it and instead of sending for an ambulance, spent an hour trying to figure out the psychological „meaning“ of the chest pains.

    And as is now being admitted even by some orgonomists, Dr. Albert DuVall was a child-abuser, and actually was TORTURING children sent to him. And Baker had been in charge of the training program that trained him and certified him to practice. What does that say about how well Baker did his job? Could he not see that one of his trainees was unsuited to become a therapist?

    To say nothing of the blatant disregard of medical ethics in soliciting donations from psychiatric patients for a cause their therapist was involved in. That should have been enough to get every member of the ACO banned from practicing medicine.

    And then, after the ACO building fund campaign had raised more than $5,000,000, the new building was never built. What happened to the money? Blasband and Barbara Koopman, another of Baker’s trainees who also later became a follower of the same psychic guru as Blasband took up with, both served as president of the ACO in the time-frame in which the money went missing. Baker seems to have been a rather poor judge of the character of his trainees.

    Baker, his son, Courtney, who was also an orgonomist, and his prize trainee, Blasband, all became members of the Shickshinny, Pennsylvania-based Knights of Malta, a fake order of nobility headed by Charles Pitchel, who had at one time been personal representative in America of Adolph Hitler. The editorial in the Journal of Orgonomy in which Baker announced this honor could hardly find words enough in the English language to sufficiently praise this neo-fascist organization headed by a former Nazi.

    Baker is the one who brought about the shift from liberal social democracy to far-right neo-conservative in the faction of orgonomy that became his followers. Despite his later anti-Stalinism, Reich never abandoned his early social ideas, only criticized the S.U. for abandoning them. But under the direction of Baker, the ACO went all the way over to the very far right and called protesters against the Viet Nam war, racism, and police brutality „psychopaths“ and “ dupes“ and „red fascists“ and lost all the potential suport orgonomy could have gained if it had sought to join forces with it’s natural allies in the movement for social justice that existed in the 60s.

    • Robert (Berlin) Says:

      But under the direction of Baker, the ACO went all the way over to the very far right …

      Paul Mathews wrote:
      „It would be irrational in a world ravaged by Red Fascism, with its enormous populations and power for destruction, to give it equal or less attention than Black Fascism.“

      • Robert (Berlin) Says:

        and lost all the potential suport orgonomy could have gained if it had sought to join forces with it’s natural allies in the movement for social justice that existed in the 60s.

        Mathews about analysis of the political forces:
        „Also, we must do this regardless of its possible being unpopular. Our primary concern is not with being „accepted“ or „democratic“ or „progressive“ or „avant-garde“ or „knowing“ in the mechanistic and ideological sense.“

  11. Tzindaro Says:

    Feb 5, 2014 at 6:50 PM
    In orgone therapy, the victim frequently forms an unacceptably strong bond with the therapist. In many cases, this bond remains throughout life, preventing the victim of orgone therapy from ever regaining his emotional independence from the therapist. This is one reason I have always thought of orgone therapy as more destructive than other forms of psychiatric assault.

    Recently, in conversation with a biologist, it was suggested that the techniques used in orgonomic attacks by a therapist might result in increased levels of oxytocin, and that this well-studied biochemical substance could explain the unacceptable effects of orgone therapy that render it so destructive to the mental health of persons who are so ill-advised as to enter into this form of psychiatric manipulation.

    Upon further study, it does indeed look as if oxytocin secretion accounts for the harm done by orgone therapy and this danger should be brought to the attention of potential victims.

    The deep breathing induced in orgone therapy results in increased levels of oxytocin, and that leads to intense bonding with the therapist. The effect leads to emotional dependence upon the therapist, often for life.

    This phenomenon can be found in another context. The inflated respect and admiration of the chela for the guru in traditional yoga as long practiced in India. In yoga, as in Reichian therapy, unusually deep breathing is induced. And the same results follow. The student become emotionally attached to the teacher for life, to an irrational degree, permitting the teacher to interfere at will in his life, his values, his other relationships, and every other aspect of his life.

    Just as the dependence on the orgonomist can cause a patient to abandon long-held values and attitudes and substitute those of the therapist in science, politics, etc., the chela in traditional yoga training become firmly convinced of anything he is told by the unimpeachable source. Reincarnation, karma, etc., all come to seem unquestionable because of this chemical bonding due to the deeper breathing.

    In orgonomy, the therapists of the ACO, a viciously far right organization, consider anyone on the left of the political spectrum to be exhibiting symptoms of psychopathology, so the cannot consider anyone to have been treated successfully until he has given up any leftist tendencies and replaced them with the far-right orientation of the orgonomist. This explains why the patients and former patients of orgonomist so often can be found on the far right.

    The uncritical acceptance of other claims frequently made in Reichian circles, such as the alleged „communist plot“ against Reich, or the claim that the earth is under attack by UFOs, are also accepted not on a basis of any evidence, but only because the honored and respected therapist proclaims them. People who have been in Reichian therapy and accept such ideas should be regarded as if they had been subjected to hypnotic drugs, as indeed they have been.

    The breathing exercises in orgonomy are tailor made to bring about this dependency via the elevation of oxytocin levels and this should be taken into account by anyone contemplating entering this form of therapy. And a lot of research needs to be done on the apparent relationship`between the effects of orgone therapy and the effects of oxytocin.

    The dependency is missing in modern New Age yoga students in the West because in the West, yoga is normally engaged in only a few sessions a week, and often in a group instead of in a one-on-one situation with a student spending daily time alone with the guru.

    This is the same in Reichian therapy situations. With an orthodox orgonomist, such as a member of the ACO, the patient is alone with the doctor, but in other situations, such as the group workshops introduced by Charles Kelley and Alexander Lowen, with a lot of other people present, usually strangers, the transference is less intense.

    That is why I have frequently been impressed with the ( relative ) sanity of the people who have been through Kelley’s Radix training program compared to the former patients of orgonomists. They usually seem more independent-minded people and less subservient to their therapists.

    Reich never got around to doing group sessions, and neither has any of the orgonomists. Kelley and Lowen introduced this innovation, among others, and it seems to help reduce the dependency caused by the elevated levels of oxytocin brought on by the practices.

    This idea is consistent with the known bonding effects of oxytocin. It helps bonding of a mother to her child at birth, but does not make a kindergarten teacher bond to her charges . Both yoga and orgone therapy show the same tendency to dependence developing in one-on-one situations, but not when the practice is done in a group setting.

    References:

    Oxytocin – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Actions within the brain[edit]
    Oxytocin secreted from the pituitary gland cannot re-enter the brain because of the blood–brain barrier. Instead, the behavioral effects of oxytocin are thought to reflect release from centrally projecting oxytocin neurons, different from those that project to the pituitary gland, or that are collaterals from them.[58] Oxytocin receptors are expressed by neurons in many parts of the brain and spinal cord, including the amygdala, ventromedial hypothalamus, septum, nucleus accumbens, and brainstem.

    Sexual arousal: Oxytocin injected into the cerebrospinal fluid causes spontaneous erections in rats,[51] reflecting actions in the hypothalamus and spinal cord. Centrally administrated oxytocin receptor antagonists can prevent noncontact erections, which is a measure of sexual arousal. Studies using oxytocin antagonists in female rats provide data that oxytocin increases lordosis behavior, indicating an increase in sexual receptivity.[59]

    Bonding: In the prairie vole, oxytocin released into the brain of the female during sexual activity is important for forming a monogamous pair bond with her sexual partner. Vasopressin appears to have a similar effect in males.[60] Oxytocin has a role in social behaviors in many species, so it likely also does in humans. In a 2003 study, both humans and dog oxytocin levels in the blood rose after five to 24 minutes of a petting session. This possibly plays a role in the emotional bonding between humans and dogs.[61]

    Maternal behavior: Female rats given oxytocin antagonists after giving birth do not exhibit typical maternal behavior.[62] By contrast, virgin female sheep show maternal behavior toward foreign lambs uponcerebrospinal fluid infusion of oxytocin, which they would not do otherwise.[63] Oxytocin is involved in the initiation of maternal behavior, not its maintenance; for example, it is higher in mothers after they interact with unfamiliar children rather than their own.[64]

    Drug interactions: According to some studies in animals, oxytocin inhibits the development of tolerance to various addictive drugs (opiates, cocaine, alcohol), and reduces withdrawal symptoms.[65] MDMA(ecstasy) may increase feelings of love, empathy, and connection to others by stimulating oxytocin activity via activation of serotonin 5-HT1A receptors, if initial studies in animals apply to humans.[66] Theanxiolytic Buspar (buspirone) also appears to produce some or all of its effect via 5-HT1A receptor-induced oxytocin stimulation.[67][68]

    Preparing fetal neurons for delivery: Crossing the placenta, maternal oxytocin reaches the fetal brain and induces a switch in the action of neurotransmitter GABA from excitatory to inhibitory on fetal cortical neurons. This silences the fetal brain for the period of delivery and reduces its vulnerability to hypoxic damage.[69]

    Romantic attachment: In some studies, high levels of plasma oxytocin have been correlated with romantic attachment. For example, if a couple is separated for a long period of time, anxiety can increase due to the lack of physical affection. Oxytocin may aid romantically attached couples by decreasing their feelings of anxiety when they are separated.[25]

    lordosis behavior,

    Trust is increased by oxytocin.[39][40][41] Disclosure of emotional events is a sign of trust in humans. When recanting a negative event, humans that receive intranasal oxytocin share more emotional details and stories with more emotional significance.[40] Humans also find faces more trustworthy after receiving intranasal oxytocin. In a study, participants that received intranasal oxytocin viewed photographs of human faces with neutral expressions and found them to be more trustworthy than those who did not receive oxytocin.[39] This may be because oxytocin reduces the fear of social betrayal in humans.[42] Even after experiencing social alienation by being excluded from a conversation, humans that received oxytocin scored higher in trust on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory.[41]

    While Oxytocin increases trust,[39][40][41] it does so only to a certain degree. In a study, participants played a variation of the trust game and acted as an “investor,” deciding how much money to allocate to a “trustee.”[43]The trustee was described as trustworthy, untrustworthy, or neutral. Participants that received intranasal oxytocin gave more money to the trustworthy and neutral trustees. Participants that received oxytocin did not give more money to the untrustworthy trustee, implying that oxytocin only increases trust when there is no reason to be distrustful.[41] When there is a reason to be distrustful, such as experiencing betrayal, differing reactions are associated with oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) differences. Those with the CT haplotype experience a stronger reaction, in the form of anger, to betrayal.[44]

    The relationship between oxytocin and human sexual response is unclear. At least two uncontrolled studies have found increases in plasma oxytocin at orgasm – in both men and women.[19][20] Plasma oxytocin levels are notably increased around the time of self-stimulated orgasm and are still higher than baseline when measured five minutes after self arousal.[19] The authors of one of these studies speculated that oxytocin’s effects on muscle contractibility may facilitate sperm and egg transport.[19]

    In a study measuring oxytocin serum levels in women before and after sexual stimulation, the author suggests it serves an important role in sexual arousal. This study found genital tract stimulation resulted in increased oxytocin immediately after orgasm.[21] Another study reported increases of oxytocin during sexual arousal could be in response to nipple/areola, genital, and/or genital tract stimulation as confirmed in other mammals.[22] Murphy et al. (1987), studying men, found oxytocin levels were raised throughout sexual arousal with no acute increase at orgasm.[23] A more recent study of men found an increase in plasma oxytocin immediately after orgasm, but only in a portion of their sample that did not reach statistical significance. The authors noted these changes „may simply reflect contractile properties on reproductive tissue“.[24]
    Oxytocin evokes feelings of contentment, reductions in anxiety, and feelings of calmness and security around the mate.[25] This suggests oxytocin may be important for the inhibition of the brain regions associated with behavioral control, fear, and anxiety, thus allowing orgasm to occur. Oxytocin also functions to protect against stress. Meta-analyses conducted in 2003 demonstrated that oxytocin can alleviate mood and reduce stress with a good efficiency.[26]

    Increasing trust and reducing fear: In a risky investment game, experimental subjects given nasally administered oxytocin displayed „the highest level of trust“ twice as often as the control group. Subjects who were told they were interacting with a computer showed no such reaction, leading to the conclusion that oxytocin was not merely affecting risk aversion.[36] Nasally administered oxytocin has also been reported to reduce fear, possibly by inhibiting the amygdala (which is thought to be responsible for fear responses).[37] Indeed, studies in rodents have shown oxytocin can efficiently inhibit fear responses by activating an inhibitory circuit within the amygdala. Some researchers have argued oxytocin has a general enhancing effect on all social emotions, since intranasal administration of oxytocin also increases envy and Schadenfreude.[38]

    Oxytocin affects social distance between adult males and females, and may be responsible at least in part for romantic attraction and subsequent monogamous pair bonding. An oxytocin nasal spray caused men in a monogamous relationship, but not single men, to increase the distance between themselves and an attractive woman during a first encounter by 10 to 15 centimeters. The researchers suggested that oxytocin may help promote fidelity within monogamous relationships.[45]

    Affecting generosity by increasing empathy during perspective taking: In a neuroeconomics experiment, intranasal oxytocin increased generosity in the Ultimatum Game by 80%, but had no effect in theDictator Game that measures altruism. Perspective-taking is not required in the Dictator Game, but the researchers in this experiment explicitly induced perspective-taking in the Ultimatum Game by not identifying to participants into which role they would be placed.[46] Serious methodological questions have arisen, however, with regard to the role of oxytocin in trust and generosity.[47]

    Empathy in healthy males has been shown to be increased after intranasal oxytocin[48][7] This is most likely due to the effect of oxytocin in enhancing eye gaze.[49] There is some discussion about which aspect of empathy oxytocin might alter – for example, cognitive vs. emotional empathy.[50]

    Cognitive function: Certain learning and memory functions are impaired by centrally administered oxytocin.[51] Also, systemic oxytocin administration can impair memory retrieval in certain aversive memory tasks.[52] Interestingly, oxytocin does seem to facilitate learning and memory specifically for social information. Healthy males administered intranasal oxytocin show improved memory for human faces, in particular happy faces.[53][54] They also show improved recognition for positive social cues over threatening social cues [55][56] and improved recognition of fear.[57]

  12. Die Laientherapeuten-Lüge | Nachrichtenbrief Says:

    […] In Paul Ritters Zeitschrift Orgonomic Functionalism schrieb Neill kurz nach Reichs Tod, daß er Paul Mathews‘ Brief voll zustimme und tatsächlich einige Wochen, bevor dessen Brief veröffentlicht wurde, selbst […]

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